Cerebral arterial thrombosis: what it is, causes, symptoms and treatment

Cerebral thrombosis is a very delicate disease that requires immediate attention. The faster the approach is launched, the better the chances of avoiding serious damage.

Cerebral arterial thrombosis: what it is, causes, symptoms and treatment

Last update: August 06, 2022

Cerebral arterial thrombosis is a very serious health problem which can leave lifelong scars or even lead to death. It is very important to learn to recognize its symptoms, as prompt attention is essential to limit the damage.

In general, cerebral thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in one of the arteries of the brain. This blocks the passage of blood and causes certain neurons to shut down. It can also be accompanied by a cerebral hemorrhage.

The condition is also known as thrombotic stroke oh ischemic. The larger the affected artery, the more serious the consequences of these events.

What is cerebral arterial thrombosis?

Cerebral thrombosis is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood clot forms. It obstructs one of cerebral arteries e prevents oxygen and nutrients from reaching an area of ​​this organ.

Blockage of blood flow causes electrical activity to stop in an area of ​​the brain. If the obstruction persists, major alterations occur in the cell membrane, which can lead to brain death.

Cerebral thrombosis is estimated at 50% of strokes. Although it is more common in older people or with underlying diseases, such as atherosclerosis or high blood pressure, the truth is that it can occur in young people.

Causes of Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis

Cerebral thrombosis is considered a disease of multifactorial origin.. All of these conditions that promote the degeneration of the arterial walls, the clogging of arteriesblood coagulation or which reduce vasodilation, may be the cause of this pathology.

Some people with certain conditions are more likely to develop this type of stroke. Risk groups can be divided into three:

  1. Con atherosclerosis. There is more likelihood of cerebral thrombosis if there is also hypertension, Diabetes Diabetesdyslipemia or smoking habit.
  2. With arteritis. Includes periarteritis nodosa, temporal arteritis, rheumatic arteritis, lupus erythematosus disseminated and infectious arteritis.
  3. Other causes. They include fibromuscular dysplasia, carotid dissection, illness of moyamoya and tumors.

People with heavy alcohol consumption, as well as those who smoke frequently, are more likely to develop cerebral thrombosis.

Atherosclerotic plaques are the breeding ground for a thrombus or embolism to form and then travel to the brain.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The clinical picture of cerebral arterial thrombosis usually sets in gradually, but with sudden advances. The most common is that it becomes noticeable within hours and, sometimes only, within days.

The main symptoms of this disease are:

  • Twisted mouth.
  • seizures.
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Changes in sight.
  • Intense headaches.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • anomalies in the Memory.
  • dizziness and loss of balance.
  • Loss of control over movements.
  • Difficulty speaking and understanding.
  • Paralysis or tingling on one side of the body.
  • Changes in bowel or bladder control.

The usual thing is that the diagnosis is made by an MRI or CT scan. The first is a more specific test. It is common for additional tests to be done, such as a chest x-ray, blood count, electrolyte, blood gases, and blood sugar.

In some cases, other specific tests may be required, such as the following:


If treatment is started within 4 hours of the onset of cerebral arterial thrombosis, a thrombolytic therapy. Here a procedure called thrombolysisIt’s made of dilute the thrombus with drugs in an attempt to restore blood flow.

Drugs are given intravenously to reach the whole body, or through a tube or catheter that reaches the arteries in the brain. In the latter case, the catheter is positioned using image guidance.

If treatment is started after 4.5 hours from the event, what to do is determine the cause of thrombosis and offer secondary prevention. That is, administering drugs to prevent the formation of new thrombi or subsequent bleeding.

The patient must remain hospitalized for a period of 4 to 7 days. This is considered the highest risk stage for a new event to occur. Therefore, the treatment is directed towards patient rehabilitation.

Possible sequelae of cerebral arterial thrombosis

It is not easy to make a prognosis in the 72 hours following the event cerebral thrombosis. The problem may stop or spread and lead to death. It is also possible that it generates neurological damage that could be reversible or irreversible.

The patient’s chances of recovery depend on several factors, such as the previous general state of health, the severity of the thrombosis, the neuronal structure affected and the speed of the care received.

Based on all these factors, recovery can range from complete to none. There may be sequelae, such as speech problems, psychomotor alterationssensory difficulties or seizure syndrome.

Rehabilitation after cerebral thrombosis is slow. This can require years of specialized support.

Can it be avoided?

The best way to prevent cerebral arterial thrombosis is to maintain a healthy lifestyle.. This involves a balanced diet, in addition to regular physical activity and stress reduction.

If there is an underlying disease, it should be controlled.

Although it applies more to venous thrombosis, it is advisable to follow the tips to avoid sitting too long. During trips, it is advisable to move from time to time and drink plenty of fluids. Movement is also important after surgery for some reason.

Needless to say avoid alcohol and tobacco. Both are risk factors for cerebral arterial thrombosis. It is also advisable to reduce the salt intake.

Cerebral arterial thrombosis is a serious problem

Rapid treatment is decisive in the event of cerebral thrombosis. Medications are much more effective when administered within 60 minutes of the event.

People who have suffered from the disease usually show changes in their behavior after leaving the episode. They are expected to be depressed and in a bad mood. The accompaniment of loved ones is the key to recovery.

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