to exist 2 basic types of vitamins: The ace fat soluble —which are A, D, E and K, and are characterized by their solubility in fats and more easily absorbed in the presence of-, and the water soluble.
In this article, you will be able to know all the keys concerning these, the recommended quantities of consumption and the benefits they provide to the body.
What are water-soluble vitamins?
According the medical encyclopedia MedlinePlus, Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water and are not stored by the body.. Surplus or excess of these nutrients leave the body through urine, so they should be consumed regularly or daily to avoid their deficiency.
The ace 9 water-soluble vitamins are there vitamin C there all B vitamins. The only exception to the fact that they do not accumulate is that of vitamin B12which can be stored in the liver for many years.
As for each of the 4 fat-soluble vitaminseach of the water solubles performs a function in the body. They are considered as coenzymes or precursors of coenzymes, essential to carry out numerous chemical reactions of metabolism.
It should be emphasized that the minimum daily vitamin requirements are not very highsince only the milligram or microgram doses contained in large amounts of natural foods.
What are the 9 water-soluble vitamins and what function does each perform?
Between the 9 water-soluble vitamins there is vitamin C, plus the 8 B vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6
(pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folate) and B12 (cobalamin).
Here are the basic functions of each of them and the recommended daily amount for adults:
- Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid: Helps in the growth and repair of tissues throughout the body. Among its functions, it heals wounds and forms scar tissue and contributes to the formation of collagen, a key protein for skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. The recommended daily amount of vitamin C is 75 milligrams (mg) per day for women and 90 milligrams per day for men, according Mayo Clinic.
- Vitamin B1 is thiamin: According MedlinePlus, is what helps cells in the body convert carbohydrates into energy, thereby contributing to the proper functioning of the heart and healthy neurons. It is necessary to consume 1.2 milligrams of thiamine in adult men, 1.1 milligrams in the case of adult women.
- Vitamin B2 or riboflavin: It is essential for the development and growth of all cells in the body and helps to obtain energy from the food consumed. Helps make red blood cells and release protein energy. The Recommended daily allowance of riboflavin (RDA) for adults, it is 1.3 mg per day for men and 1.1 mg per day for women,
- Vitamin B3 or niacin: Involved in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, helps produce sex hormones, repair DNA or maintain healthy skin and nervous system. According the bone NIH, 16 milligrams per day are needed for adult men and 14 milligrams per day for adult women.
- Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid: This nutrient helps certain enzymes convert food into energy, while protecting cells against peroxide damage. It is particularly important for the manufacture and breakdown of fats. Build lack 5 milligrams of vitamin B5 per day for adults.
- Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine: East Vitamin B complex It is used for the functioning of sugars, fats and proteins in the body, as well as for the proper development of the brain, nerves or skin. You should take 1.3 mg per day if you are a man and 1.7 mg if you are a woman. From the age of 50, you need less.
- Vitamin B7 or biotin: Among other functions of biotin, this vitamin is used to regulate metabolism, promote brain function, strengthen the immune system, control blood sugar or help during breastfeeding and pregnancy. The recommended daily amount of biotin it is 30 micrograms for adults.
- Vitamin B9 or folic acid: It is used to utilize amino acids, produce genetic material, form blood cells in the bone marrow, or promote cell growth.. 400 mcg per day is needed for adults, a quantity that increases to 500 in breastfeeding women and 600 during pregnancy. However, NutriFacts information that in most European countries the average consumption of folate It is below national recommendations.
- Vitamin B-12 or Cobalamin: Ultimatelyvitamin B12 —which must be supplemented in vegan and vegetarian diets—, is essential for maintaining the central nervous system in good health, for the formation of red blood cells and the regulation of metabolism. According Mayo Clinic, the recommended daily amount of vitamin B-12 for adults is 2.4 micrograms.
How to better absorb water-soluble vitamins
just like Explain from Consumer, Depending on storage and cooking conditions, foods can lose 40% vitamin A, up to 80% vitamin B1, or all of the original vitamin C.
Scientific evidence shows that most unstable vitamins during cooking processes are the water soluble vitamins. Specifically, vitamin C, folate or B9, thiamin or B1, and riboflavin or B2. The key to increasing the actual carry values is eat raw vegetables and unpeeled, well-washed fresh fruit every day.
To give you an idea, these are the actual retention values (RR) of many of the foods you eat.
- Baked fruits: 80% RR vitamin C, 60% folate and 85% retinoids and carotenoids.
- Fruit compote: 70% RR vitamin C, 50% folate and 75% retinoids.
- Legumes cooked 15/20 minutes: 70% RR of vitamin C, 65% folate, 90% retinoids.
- Legumes cooked 45/75 minutes: 70% vitamin C RR, 50% folate, 90% retinoids.
- Legumes cooked 2/2h30: 70% vitamin C RR, 35% folate, 90% retinoids.
- Boiled vegetables, covered with water and drained: 55% RR vitamin C, 60% folate, 95% retinoids.
- Vegetables boiled with little water and drained: 60% RR vitamin C, 65% folate, 95% retinoids.
- Stir-fried vegetables: 85% RR vitamin C, 85% folate, 90% retinoids.
Another interesting key for absorb more water-soluble vitamins in your daily life It consists of chopping the vegetables, if possible, just before serving them, in addition to enjoying and drinking the cooking water, useful for the broth.
On the other hand, the best method for preserve the nutrients available in food cooking.