what are the warning symptoms and how to prevent them

Myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow to the heart is blocked or significantly reduced.

Typically, this is caused by a blockage related to a buildup of fat, cholesterol, and other substances in the (coronary) arteries of the heart. “Fatty deposits that contain cholesterol are called plaques, and the process of plaque buildup is known as atherosclerosis,” explains the Mayo Clinic Research Institute.

Sometimes these plaques can rupture and form a clot that blocks blood flow. When this situation occurs, part of the heart muscle can be damaged or destroyed.

There are several symptoms that could indicate that a person is having a heart attack that you should watch out for. Signs include: chest pain that may feel like pressure, squeezing, aching, or a feeling of pressure or pain; discomfort that spreads to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, jaw, teeth, or sometimes upper abdomen; cold sweat; fatigue; heartburn or indigestion; sudden dizziness or lightheadedness, nausea, and shortness of breath.

Women may have atypical symptoms, such as brief or throbbing pain in the neck, arm, or back. Sometimes the first symptom of a heart attack is sudden cardiac arrest. “Some heart attacks happen suddenly, but many people experience warning signs and symptoms hours, days, or weeks in advance,” says the Mayo Clinic.

The causes of a heart attack are not always known, however, according to the US National Library of Medicine, there are risk factors such as age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, lack of exercise, stress. , and illicit drug use.

The Spanish Heart Foundation indicates that since these risk factors are always associated with the possibility of developing cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarctions could be avoided in a high percentage.

“In 90% of heart attacks, an avoidable and potentially reversible cardiovascular risk factor can be identified, the most important of which is tobacco, but also poor diet and lack of physical exercise, two bad habits that can lead to impaired some blood. pressure figures, cholesterol, blood lipids, obesity and diabetes”, specifies the aforementioned institution on its website.

For specialists, the risk of heart attack can only be prevented by quitting smoking, practicing regular physical activity and adopting a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. and away from high-fat, high-calorie processed foods.


Mayo Clinic specialists indicate that when a heart attack occurs, various complications can be generated, including:

– Irregular or unusual heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Damage from a heart attack can affect the movement of electrical signals in the heart and cause changes in heart rhythm. Some changes can be serious and life-threatening.

– Cardiogenic shock. This rare disease occurs when the heart is suddenly unable to pump blood.

– Heart failure. If heart muscle tissue has been severely damaged, the heart may not be able to pump blood. Heart failure can be temporary or long-term (chronic).

– Inflammation of the sac-like tissue that surrounds the heart (pericarditis). Sometimes the heart attack triggers a faulty reaction of the immune system. This condition may be called Dressler’s syndrome, post-myocardial infarction syndrome, or post-heart injury syndrome.

– Heart failure. The heart stops without previous signals. A sudden change in heart signals causes sudden cardiac arrest. A heart attack increases the risk of this deadly disease which, if not treated immediately, can lead to death (sudden cardiac death).

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